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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

1. Geography

Great Britain is situated in the British Isles.

It consists of three parts: England, Wales and Scotland.

Britain consists of 2 large islands (Great Britain and Ireland)

Its neighbours are Southern Ireland and France.

The British Isles are situated in the northeast of the Atlantic Ocean.

From Europe they are divided by the English Channel.

In May 1994,the Channel Tunnel was opened between England and France. Now it is possible to travel through the Channel by train.

A climate is there variable and humid.

The winters are mild and the summers aren't very hot and it rains a lot. The average temperature ranges from 4 °C in winter to 16°C in summer, extremes are quite rare.

British rivers aren't very long, but deep. The largest river is Thames.

Lakes are to by found in the Lake District in north-east England (Lake Windermere) and in the Highlands of Scotland (Loch Lomond, loch Ness). The largest lake in the Britain Isles is Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland.

In Britain there are very few forests, but there are Mooreland. Mooreland are in northeast and southwest England.

The highest mountain in the Scottish Highlands in the British Isles is Ben Nevis (1343 m). In Wales the highest mountain is Snowdon (1085 m). In England is highest point Scafell Pike (978 m) in the Cumbrian Mountains. Backbone of England called the Pennines because in the central part of northern England, they extend from Northumberland to Derbyshire.


The populations in the Britain are about 60 million. People. Britain is divided into counties. England comprises 46 counties, Wales 8 counties and Northern Ireland 6 counties. Scotland is divided into 12 regions and 53 districts.

In Britain, we can find the following ethnic groups: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh. The majority of people speak English

2. Early History

The first people to inhabit the British Isles were settlers from Europe. They arrived in about 3500 B.C. They introduced farming, pottery and stone tools. They lived in the south of England. These early inhabitants built Stonehenge, a huge circle of standing stones. More settlers were the Celts. They started to invade Britain from the 10th century B.C. as one called the Britons. As second was named Britannia by the Romans who occupied the country from 55 B.C to the 5th century A.D. The Vikings arrived from Scandinavia throughout the 9th century, and in 1066 the Normans invaded from France. The Battle of Hastings in 1066 led William Duke of Normandy French army to England. When Harold, the king of England, was killed became William I. king of England. We called him William the Conqueror.

One of the best-remembered kings is Henry VIII who had six wives. Henry was well educated and had the mind of a statesman. During his reign Wales was brought into legal union with England, but he was a terrible autocrat.

His daughter Elizabeth I ruled not by force, but by female diplomacy. Many European kings longed to control England but she remained unmarried. Although in 1588 the Spanish Armada attempted to invade England, the British navy led by Sir Francis Drake defeated it. During Elizabeth reign the England opened to world. She was first monarch to give her name to an era: the Elizabethan age.

Another monarch was Victoria. She came to throne, when she was 18. It was in 1837. His husband was Prince Albert. When Albert died she didn't once more married. Queen Victoria reigned for 64 years. During his reign the British Empire grew and she was the dignified symbol of the continuity and stability of the British way of life.

3. Kings of Britain

Henry VIII. Had 6 wifes. Henry was well educated and had the mind of a statesman, but he ruled as a true and terrible autocrat.

Elizabeth I.

Queen Victoria came to throne in 1837 at the age of 18. She reigned for 64 years. Victoria was the first monarch to live in Buckingham Palace. The British Empire reached its greatest importance in the 1920s

Queen Elizabeth II.

4. British Government

Government type and administration

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen as the head of state.

Britain is divided into four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The capital of the whole Britain is London. Other big cities are Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, and Edinburgh. Britain is the member of nearly all important international organisations - UN, NATO and OECD.

5. The British Flag and Anthem

The flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is Offaly called the Union Flag. The flag is made up of the crosses of the patron saints of England.

            England - Red Cross on a white field (St. George)

            Ireland - red diagonals on white field (St. Patrick)

            Scotland - white diagonals on blue field (St. Andrew)

6. English Food

Typical English meals for a day are cereal, toast and tea for workday breakfast, fried bacon and eggs, or sausages and fries tomatoes, and many cups of tea or coffee, toast and marmalade on Sundays.

      Lunch is usually quick meal consisting of a warm dish, or sandwiches, with tea or coffee.

      The evening meal, dinner is the main meal of the day - a hot meal or meat, potatoes and green vegetables cooked in hot water, pudding and custard, or a dessert followed by a cup of tea or coffee with or without milk and sugar.

7. Industry

Britain is very rich in coal, oil and natural gas. Its industry is highly developed. It comprises heavy and light engineering, electrical and electronically engineering, aero engines, shipbuilding, chemical industry, consumer goods and textile industry, fish processing factories.

National economy

The main industries are steel, metals, vehicles, shipbuilding, shipping, banking, insurance, textiles, chemicals, electronics, aircraft, machinery, and distilling. The main agricultural products are corn, sugar beet, fruit, and vegetables. Britain is rich in coal, tin, oil, gas, chalk and lead.


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© 2006-2008 lrigteews


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